Chemical properties of silicon

- May 28, 2018-

Silicon has distinct non-metallic properties and is soluble in alkali metal hydroxide solutions, producing (meta)silicates and hydrogen.

The silicon atom is located in the main group IV of the periodic table. Its atomic number is Z=14 and there are 14 electrons outside the nucleus. Outside the atomic nucleus, electrons are made up of low-silicon atoms to high energy levels, from the inside to the outside, surrounded by layers. This is called the electronic shell structure. The first layer of outer nuclear electrons of silicon atoms has two electrons, and the second layer has eight electrons, reaching a steady state. The outermost four electrons are valence electrons, which play a leading role in the conductivity of silicon atoms.

Because the silicon atoms have such a structure, they have some special properties: the outermost four valence electrons make the silicon atoms metastable, and these valence electrons make the silicon atoms covalently bonded to each other due to covalent bonds. Bonds are relatively strong, silicon has a high melting point and density; chemical properties are relatively stable, it is difficult to react with other substances (except hydrogen fluoride and lye) at room temperature; there is no obvious free electrons in silicon crystals, can conduct electricity, but conduct electricity The rate is less than that of metal, and it increases with temperature and has semiconductor properties.