As one of the liquid crystal cells using a polymer, there is a “polymer dispersed liquid crystal (PDLC)”. (PDLC: Polymer Dispersed Liquid Crystal)
It is characterized by a very large amount of monomer mixture. In contrast to polymer stabilization, where the proportion of monomers is a mixed amount of several percent, the polymer dispersed type can be produced by mixing a large amount of monomers of several tens percent.
PDLC has a structure in which a polymer wraps liquid crystal droplets as shown in the figure above.
In the state of no electric field, the liquid crystal molecules are oriented in random directions in the droplet, and the incident light is scattered. This is because the refractive indices of the polymer region and the liquid crystal region are different.
However, when an electric field is applied, the directions of the liquid crystal molecules are aligned, and the incident light can be transmitted as it is. This is because the refractive indices of the polymer region and the liquid crystal region are equal.